Ancient Remedy: 12 Medicinal Properties of Willow

For centuries, the willow tree has been revered for its medicinal properties. Nearly all parts of the willow tree, including the bark, leaves, and seeds, contain salicin, a chemical similar to aspirin. Willow bark has been used across many cultures to naturally treat pain, fever, and inflammation.

Modern research has validated the traditional uses of willow bark. Extracts have been proven to help numerous health conditions, making this ancient remedy as relevant as ever.

Willow Bark Medicine

Willow bark comes from several related species of the willow tree, including white willow and black willow. It contains a key active ingredient called salicin, which is converted to salicylic acid in the body. This is the same compound found in aspirin, and it provides willow bark’s analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

For thousands of years, willow bark has been used as a natural remedy. The ancient Egyptians used it for pain relief. Native Americans used it to help treat headaches, fever, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. In the 1800s, scientists discovered how to extract salicylic acid from willow bark to produce aspirin.

Today, willow bark is available in several forms including capsules, liquid extracts and powders. The bark can also be used to make tea. Many people take willow bark supplements to gain the natural benefits of salicylic acid without having to take aspirin.

Key Medicinal Uses of Willow Bark

Research has confirmed that willow bark works similarly to aspirin to block pain and inflammation in the body. Some of the main medicinal uses include:

Relieving Low Back Pain

Multiple studies have found that taking willow bark extract for several weeks can significantly improve chronic low back pain. It may work as well as conventional prescription medications. The active compounds help reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes that contribute to back pain and stiffness.

Soothing Osteoarthritis Symptoms

Willow bark extract has been shown to minimize osteoarthritis pain and increase mobility. In one study, people with hip and knee osteoarthritis saw a significant improvement in pain during activity and at rest after taking it for 2-3 months. It is thought to inhibit COX-2 enzymes and reduce cartilage degradation.

Reducing Headaches

Willow bark extract has been proven to effectively treat tension headaches and migraines. A standardized extract taken for up to six weeks may minimize headache frequency, intensity and duration. This is attributed to the anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties.

Alleviating Menstrual Cramps

Supplementing with willow bark around the time of menstruation can help provide relief from cramping. One study found it worked as well as naproxen (Aleve) at reducing pain and systemic inflammation during periods. It may also help minimize heavy menstrual bleeding.

Supporting Weight Loss

Early research suggests willow bark may aid weight loss by increasing satiety and improving lipid metabolism. One study showed that obese adults taking a combination supplement with willow bark experienced less hunger and had greater weight loss compared to placebo.

Treating Fever

The natural salicylates and flavonoids in willow bark have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic (fever-reducing) benefits. Willow bark tea has been traditionally used for centuries as a natural method to lower high fevers.

Reducing Anxiety

Studies indicate that in addition to physical pain relief, willow bark extract may also help decrease anxiety scores. The anxiolytic effects are believed to be related to salicylic acid modulating neurotransmitters like serotonin.

Combating Cancer

Willow bark contains antioxidant compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins that exhibit anticancer benefits. Early cell studies indicate it may help inhibit the growth and spread of certain cancers. More research is still needed.

Relieving Bursitis Pain

Applying willow bark creams or taking oral willow bark supplements can help alleviate painful bursitis symptoms. Bursitis is inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) between the bones and tendons/muscles. The anti-inflammatory properties help reduce swelling and tenderness.

Improving Skin Health

Willow bark contains salicin, phenolic acids and flavonoids that can promote smoother, healthier looking skin. It has natural astringent, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Willow bark is used in some topical skin care products for issues like acne, rosacea and signs of aging.

Easing Flu Symptoms

Drinking willow bark tea at the first signs of flu can help decrease fever, body aches, headaches and respiratory symptoms. The phenolic compounds act as antiviral agents to fight viral infections and reduce congestion.

Speeding Injury Recovery

Using topical willow bark products or taking oral supplements may help accelerate recovery from sports and other injuries. By controlling inflammation and pain, it can help minimize swelling and stiffness. This allows for earlier mobilization and rehabilitation.

As you can see, willow bark has wide-ranging medicinal effects primarily related to its natural salicylic acid content. It has potent analgesic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that make it effective at treating many painful inflammatory conditions.

Willow Bark vs Aspirin for Pain Relief

Aspirin was originally developed based on the discovery of salicin in willow bark. But is willow bark as effective as aspirin for relieving pain?

Here is a comparison of the two:

  • Willow bark contains salicin which converts to salicylic acid in the body. Aspirin’s active ingredient is acetylsalicylic acid, which the body breaks down to salicylic acid.
  • Both aspirin and willow bark effectively inhibit COX enzymes and reduce inflammation and pain symptoms. They work similarly for conditions like headaches, arthritis pain and muscle soreness.
  • Willow bark contains other beneficial plant compounds like flavonoids and polyphenols that enhance its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
  • Aspirin is usually faster acting, while willow bark can take 1-2 weeks to reach full efficacy. However, willow bark provides longer-lasting pain relief.
  • Willow bark typically causes fewer side effects like stomach upset and bleeding problems compared to aspirin, especially with long-term use.
  • Willow bark supplements are available in lower doses. Aspirin is usually taken at higher doses of 325-650mg per pill.
  • Willow bark is natural, while aspirin is synthetic. This may appeal to people looking for botanical options.

Overall, willow bark works in a similar way to aspirin with some added benefits. But aspirin may be the better choice for immediate, short-term pain relief. For long-term pain management and anti-inflammatory effects, willow bark can be just as or more effective than aspirin.

How to Use Willow Bark

There are a few ways to use willow bark for its medicinal benefits:

  • Willow Bark Tea – Add 1-2 teaspoons of dried willow bark to hot water and let it steep for 5-10 minutes. Drink up to 3 cups per day. Has a bitter taste.
  • Willow Bark Capsules – Look for standardized extracts containing 120-240mg salicin. Take 1-2 capsules 1-3 times daily.
  • Willow Bark Powder – can be sprinkled on food, added to water or stirred into honey. Use 500-1000mg per dose up to 3 times daily.
  • Topical Creams – Apply willow bark creams directly to affected areas like the lower back or knees to relieve localized pain.
  • Tinctures – Use willow bark tincture solo or add drops to water. Dose is generally 1-2mL taken 2-3 times per day.

No matter which method you choose, always follow dosage directions and start with the lowest amount. It may take 1-3 weeks of consistent use to feel the full effects.

Look for supplements standardized to contain a certain percent of salicin like 15-30%. The salicin content gives willow bark its analgesic power. Unstandardized bark contains less salicin so more may be needed for pain relief.

Is Willow Bark Safe?

Willow bark is generally safe when taken as directed for adults. However, there are some precautions to be aware of:

  • Avoid use if you are sensitive or allergic to aspirin/salicylates
  • Willow bark may increase bleeding risk. Those with bleeding disorders or taking blood thinners should consult a doctor before using.
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not take willow bark due to lack of safety data.
  • Children and teenagers should not use willow bark because of risks like Reye’s syndrome.
  • Stomach upset, headaches and dizziness are possible side effects. Start with low doses.
  • Do not combine willow bark with aspirin or other NSAIDs like ibuprofen because this increases bleeding risk.

Talk to your healthcare provider before taking willow bark if you take any medications or have ongoing health conditions. Avoid using it for more than 4-6 consecutive weeks unless directed by a doctor.


Willow bark extract provides a natural alternative to synthetic pain and anti-inflammatory medications. Salicin is the key component that mimics the effects of aspirin. Taking willow bark supplements or tea can safely and effectively treat conditions like chronic joint pain, osteoarthritis, headaches, flu, menstrual cramps and low back pain. Just be mindful of any potential side effects and drug interactions. With responsible use, willow bark is an excellent herbal remedy with thousands of years of traditional use behind it.